Jackson’s Military Road

 

…its spur to Bay St. Louis and activity of citizens of note

Russell B. Guerin

The War of 1812, as fought in the Gulf States, made many aware of the vulnerability of the United States. It was for this awareness that plans were made, and money advanced, for the construction of forts at various strategic places, such as Petite Coquille and Chef Menteur. That history is reported in part in a previous post.

 

In addition to fortifications, it was also noted that improvement was necessary to the road system of the area.  After the war, federal funds were appropriated for a route running from Nashville to New Orleans, and Andrew Jackson was the man who to oversee its construction.

The appropriation for Jackson's Military Road was made on April 24, 1816.

 

Acknowledgements

The article that follows on these pages in a way is accidental. Previously mentioned in the Pearlington article was General Ripley, and further coverage about him was not planned. However, curiosity about a run-in he had with the federal government, culminating in a Supreme Court decision after twenty-two years, led to an investigation of the papers of Andrew Jackson. This resulted in some surprising information about Bay St. Louis and some of its early residents, such as Thomas Shields, Elihu Carver, and General Taylor.

For this good fortunes, I wish to acknowledge first of all, The Papers of Andrew Jackson Digital Edition, the University of Virginia Press. In addition, unexpected finds came out of  The United States Congressional Serial Set, known as the “Serial Set.” It came into being with the 15th Congress, 1817, just in time for to report some of the activity of our Hancock County elite.


Jackson’s Thoughts about a Road

 

Within a few days of the battle of New Orleans, Jackson was concerned about the British intentions with regard to Mobile and Pascagoula and the islands of Cat and Horn, obviously worried about their defenses.

 

On February 17, 1815, Jackson wrote to his longtime friend, Robert Hays. It is instructive to read his very words, even though a reader might have to suffer through his unique spelling and report of his physical malady of the moment. It is in these words that we find mentions of Bay St. Louis and Thomas Shields. 

 

To Robert Hays

HQ 7th District, New Orleans

Feb. 17, 1815

The mail has arived and brought me yours of the 6th. instant, and a Letter from Colo Anderson of the 14th. Natchez, advising that he and the ladies had Just reached that place, the citizens had laid an embargo on the ladies for the night, to partake of a party, and they would set out at revelie on the morning of the 15th. all in good health, I hope I shall see them tomorrow—I have had a serious attack of disentry that reduced me verry much, brought on by cold and fatigue in short I have not been clear of it for four months except ten days after my first arival at this place, until five days ago, when Doctor [David C.] Kerr Hospital Surgeon suceeded in stopping it—and I am again recovering my strength—in all this situation I have not indulged one day from my duty—I have this moment recd. a letter from Mr Shields purser of the navy from Bay of St Louis advising, that the British vessels of war were off Mobile Point and their Transports 45 in number between Horn Island and the main land near Pasgagola—three of these vessels east of Cat Island4—a few days will develope there views and intentions—Coffee, Hutchings, Capt Donelson and all relations here well Colo Smith has been sick but on the recovery. with my best wishes for your & your families happiness adieu—

Andrew Jackson

 

ALS, DLC (16). Published in Bassett, 2:172.

 

 

By the end of the year, Jackson was naming forts of which he had concern, like Petite Coquille, St. Philip, and Bowyer, but also proposing a road from Nashville to New Orleans.

 

Washington City. 17 Decr. 1815

To William Harris Crawford   Sec of War]

 

Sir,

I shall not be considered troublesome when I again claim the attention of the department of war to the situation of the Divission which has been assigned me. The considerations which render it important that there should be placed within it, as soon as possible, all the means intended for its defence, I need not suggest. Reports & communications in your office will shew the deficiencies which exist.

The exposed situation of Mobile requires the earliest attention; & points to the necessity of auxiliary batteries at Ft Bowyer. On this subject I have heretofore communicated my thoughts.

Petites Coquille too is a most important point as it commands the entrance into lake Ponchartrain; & the fortifications which have been commenced there, ought to be completed without delay.

The establishment of those auxilliary batteries at Ft St Phillips which I have heretofore recommended, merits the most particular consideration.1

All of these works ought to be placed at once under the immediate superintendance of some skillful engineer….means for this defence. A road leading from Nashville (which is the proper point it should commence at) to New-Orleans, may be conducted over much better ground than that which is at present travelled, with a saving of more than 300 miles. A passage thus shortening the distance for the transportation as well of supplies as of men from the country which, on such an occassion, must furnish both, may be of incalculable consequence in our future operations. Let me add also as a consideration deserving great weight that this road will scarcely touch upon land to which the Indian title has not been extinguished. The designation however, of this road, should be entrusted only to some one in whose honor & honesty the government has the highest confidence. The opening of it may be of very little expence. I have the honor to be with great respect Sir Yr. mst obt st

Andrew Jackson
Major Genl Comdg.
D. of the South

 On April 24, 1816, Congress took action

p. 81:

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America, in Congress assembled, That the sum of ten thousand dollars be and are hereby appropriated, and payable out of any moneys in the treasury not otherwise appropriated for the purpose of repairing and keeping in repair the road between Columbia, on Duck River in the state of Tennessee, and Madisonville, in the state of Louisiana, by the Choctaw Agency, and also the road between Fort Hawkins, in the state of Georgia, and Fort Stoddard, under the direction of the Secretary of War.

 

On September 24, 1816, William H. Crawford, Secretary of War, informed General Andrew Jackson, who was then commanding the Army district at Nashville, of the appropriation, and directing that $5,000 be spent on the road to Louisiana. He noted that "I have received no information of the length of this road, the nature of the country through which it passes, or its present state. If there are many bridges to be erected the appropriation will be inadequate to the object. In that event the employment of a part of the troops may become necessary."

It was clear that the beginning was to be at Nashville; the end was to be New Orleans. What Jackson conceinved was a route that crossed the Tombigbee River at present site of Columbus, MS, and west of that river through counties known today as Lowndes, Noxubee, KemperNewtonJasperJonesMarion, and Pearl River, crossing into Louisiana at the Pearl River west of  Poplarville, then running from present-day Bogalusa to Madisonville.

What was not contemplated was a spur at Bay St. Louis.

 

Years after the completion of the Jackson Military Road, Jackson remarked about the importance of roads and fortifications.

ALS, MB (11-0170)

March 16, 2026

The amendments proposed to the constitution are thought by the people to be necessary to keep our goverment pure & uncorrupted, and by that means make it perpetual—if congress does not adopt them I have no doubt but the people will take the subject up and pursue a course that will obtain the amendments proposed.

The amendments proposed to the constitution are thought by the people to be necessary to keep our goverment pure & uncorrupted, and by that means make it perpetual—if congress does not adopt them I have no doubt but the people will take the subject up and pursue a course that will obtain the amendments proposed.5

The power of internal improvement by the general goverment within a state without its consent I never did believe was conferred by the Constitution—unless military roads to a fortress, & when made, only the common use—Congress being charged with the common defence of the country & for this purpose to build fortifications must have roads for their supply & reinforcement—I have thought that the states ought not to yield this power—the additional patronage it would give might prove dangerous—all internal improvements should be made by the states respectively, and so soon as our national debt is paid the surplus revenue apportioned amonghst the states for internal improvement & educating the poor—important improvements altogether national ought to be carried into effect by the general goverment by & with the consent of the states—each state through which the improvement pass, binding themselves to keep the canal or road in repair

Andrew Jackson

ALS, MB (11-0170).

In Jackson’s letter of February 2, 1817, quoted above, he mentions Thomas Shields, the founder of Bay St. Louis, known also in those days as Shieldsborough. Heretofore we have known little about Shields, and welcome additional information.

More will be reported below relating to Mr. Shields, but our starting point here, more closely related to the Jackson Military Road, is General Ripley.

                                                                                                                                                 General Ripley

 This is one of the surprises mentioned at the beginning. We have known of this standout of the War of 1812 relative to his war service, and to his activity in Pearlington and New Orleans after he had resigned from the US army. Once again, learning of his activity by way of a long-term legal action clearly puts him in the thick of the construction of the Jackson road.

 

Documentation found in Ripley’s long-term legal maneuver with the federal government places him in Bay St. Louis in 1818 and 1819. He is shown renting both his residence and his office in that period from Thomas Shields.

 

 

Following is a letter from Andrew Jackson to George Graham, acting Secretary of War.

       

Head Quarters
Division of the South
Nashville 13th. May 1817

                                         

Sir

Major [Paul Hyacinte] Perrault of the Topographical Department having a few days since reported himself at this place1 I have determined not to await the return of Capt. Young but immediately to commence opening the contemplated military road from the nothern boundery of the Mississippi Territory to the lake Ponchertrain, commencing at the first named point with the troops (one company) (now) at Fort Hampton, untill the affairs of the upper Mississippi will justify the removal of the two companies of the 8th. Infantry now there—Orders have been given to General Ripley to furnish two companies, to commence cutting at the southern extremity of the road under the directions of Capt. Young, Topo. Engineer, who has been instructed to open it thirty feet wide, causway all marshes & swamps 20 feet wide, raising them above high water mark, and to make bridges of durable materials over all streams that their means will permit.

AJ

 

Clearly, Jackson wanted Ripley to begin work on the road. It is to be noted, however, that he did not mention anything about a spur or the village of Bay St. Louis.

 

It was in a letter of July 1818 wherein Ripley discussed a connection of the proposed road to be from Bay St. Louis to the Pearl River. Unfortunately, we do not have details of that letter, but it apparently was his proposal to order such a crossroad. Perhaps it was prompted by his dedication to the growth of Pearlington. We can only guess that this might have been so. What we do find in the personality of the man was that he sometimes acted impetuously, and sometimes in his own interest. For him to deviate from his orders to build a road conforms to some other choices, as will be seen below.

 

General Ripley, a brevet Major General, expected much from the government he served. Thus the years of claims for which the Supreme Court finally declined to pay. It can be observed from his demands against the federal government that Ripley was singular in his judgments. It is not surprising, then, to see that he took it upon himself to conceive a spur running off the Jackson Road to Bay St. Louis.

 

It may also be that Ripley was feathering his own nest, expecting that a spur to Bay St. Louis would produce an increase in the value of land he bought in Shieldsborough in the year 1818. Deed Book A records the following on p. 395:

 Louis Glaises of Shieldsborough and wife Madam Marie G., for $600 paid by Elazar W. Ripley, a major general of the US army, land fronting of the Bay measuring 3 ½ arpents by depth of 40 arpents bounded on N by Madame Lelitots [Lafito?], S by Madam Peraches [Parish], W by Bousden [Boisdore?], and E by Bay. Survey done by C. Lafon of New Orleans on 5-5-14, having 140 arpents. Same was conveyed by Madam Glaises to Ripley as it was owned before her marriage.

Signed by Marie G. Glaises and L. Glaises  on 11-19-18.

Recorded 8-8-54.

 

 It may also be that the proposed route of the spur already was known as an Indian trail. A road, later known as the Choctaw-Bay St. Louis Trail, already existed at the time General Ripley thought of a spur running to Bay St. Louis. That trail runs south from Meridian, follows the now existing US Highway 11 to Poplarville, and then follows State highways 53, 603, and US 90, terminating at Bay St. Louis.

Perhaps it was that part of the trail running from the Bay to Pearl River that could easily be improved as a spur with the help of Ripley’s two companies of soldiers of the 8th Division.

Ripley appears frequently in his relationship with Thomas Shields, in the context of lessee and lessor. Many of these references are found in the legal proceedings in which Ripley claimed large amounts of moneys from the federal government, some of which were legitimate. Others were more like commissions he believed he earned as a brevet major general on expenditures over which he had some responsibility.

There is much evidence that Jackson continued to worry about Ripley.

To William Harris Crawford

William H. Crawford’s decision to transfer Eleazar Wheelock Ripley (1782–1839; Dartmouth 1800) from the Northern to the Southern Division of the army, the major topic in Jackson’s letter below, was only one [25] in a long series of events that contributed to a deteriorating relationship between Jackson and the secretary of war.

Jackson’s objections to the transfer grew out of his concern over the impact that Ripley’s presence might have on the morale and discipline of Southern Division officers. The uneasiness grew out of a dispute between Ripley and Charles Kitchel Gardner (1787–1869), Jacob J. Brown’s adjutant general.

In September 1815, Gardner had demanded of Ripley satisfaction for rumors Ripley had spread about Gardner’s cowardice at the battles of Chippewa, Lundy’s Lane, and Fort Erie. Ripley responded by ordering Gardner’s arrest and court-martial on charges of cowardice and dereliction of duty, conduct unbecoming an officer, and disrespectful conduct and language. The court, convening on October 4, 1815, rendered its verdict on January 22, 1816: it found Gardner not guilty of the first three charges, guilty of some of the specifications of the fourth and guilty of the fifth, and sentenced him to be reprimanded. When General Brown reviewed the decision, he used the opportunity more to criticize Ripley than to reprimand Gardner. He ordered Gardner to resume his sword and duties as adjutant general. He expressed, however, strong disapproval of Ripley’s method of originating the arrest and court-martial, saying that the important charges involved events long past and that the arrest grew out of a personal quarrel. He concluded that “the discipline of the Army would not have suffered” if Ripley had applied to his superior, and he demanded Ripley’s transfer. On May 21, Crawford wrote that, despite Jackson’s objections, Ripley would be transferred to the Southern Division.

 

Head Quarters Div. of the South
Greenville M.T. April 2, 1816

 

Sir,

Your two letters of the 15th. ultimo I had the honor to receive last evening at Natchez.1 I immediately addressed a note to the governor of Pensacola on the subject of the negroe fort which I placed in the hands of Colonel [Thomas Sidney] Jessup to be handed to Captain Amelung of the 1st. Regt. ly: whom I have instructed to be the bearer of it.2 It is accompanied with the necessary Instructions to Capt Amelung for his government copies of which with an extract of a letter of mine to Genl. Gaines on this subject of the 8th. Inst shall be forwarded you as soon as I reach Nashville3—at which point I have advised Genls. Gaines & [Thomas Adams) Smith I should be on the 8th. proximo; at which time and place I expect to receive communications from each of those gentlemen.4 I have a hope that General Gaines has attended to the subject of this negroe fort [26] and put an end to the lawless Depradations of this Banditti of Land Pirates. He has been left to his Discretion to act on this subject with my opinion, if certain facts can be proven against them that their fort must be destroyed. I trust he has taken the Hint. So soon as I receive the governor or commanding officer’s answer I shall forward you copies of the corospondence5

On the subject of General Ripley I can only say that the officers live in the most perfect Harmony with each other in my Division and I should be sorry that a transfer should be made that would interrupt this good understanding. The conduct of General Ripley as regards the arrest of Majr Gardner of the 3d. Iy. has produced sensations respecting him in the minds of the officers of the Division that I have heard converse on the subject highly unfavourable to Genl. Ripley from which feelings I must acknowlege I am not free: but not having seen the charges against Majr Gardner or his acquittal I do on this as on all other occasions where the feelings of honorable men are concerned suspend my opinion untill I am better advised; but if it is true that Genl Ripley arrested Majr Gardner on the disgraceful charge of cowardice, (and made this charge of himself) and if a court martial has honorably acquitted the Majr of this charge I hesitate not in declaring that General Ripley or any other officer of the army who makes such a charge against his brother officer and fails in the proof ought to be dismissed for lying. You may Judge then of my feelings of Genl Ripley if this should be the fact: otherwise I am free to declare that I have been impressed favourably towards the General before this transaction and would have felt happy to have had him with me in the day of danger: I should have thought him a safe and valuable companion on all occasions

After this candid declaration on my part you will from the facts attending the arrest of Majr Gardner judge of the propriety of transfering General Ripley, with this assurance, that I shall acquiesce in any transfer you may think proper to make: but I cannot pretend to hazard an opinion as it regards the general feeling of the officers composing my division6 I have the honor to be sir with high consideration your Obt. Servant—

Andrew Jackson
Major Genl comdg
 

Jackson requested a copy of the Gardner court-martial proceedings in June, and Gardner transmitted a copy in August (see Report of the charges and verdict re Gardner, February 5, DLC-20; Robert Butler to Gardner, June 26, 4–0131; and Gardner to Butler, August 5, DLC-21). By November 12, when he attended a public dinner in Nashville honoring Ripley, Jackson had apparently cast off his apprehensions regarding the transfer.

The Papers of Andrew Jackson Digital Edition

 

1829 

Hamilton wrote two letters to George Graham on November 5. The first declined his appointment as surveyor of public lands in Mississippi and Louisiana. In it Hamilton accused Eleazar Wheelock Ripley (1782–1839) of promoting his appointment to compel him to remove to the surveyor’s office in Mississippi and thus bar him from competing with Ripley for a Louisiana congressional seat. Ripley was a New Hampshire native, onetime Massachusetts legislator, and an Army brigadier general in the War of 1812. He won election to Congress in 1834.

Cite as: The Papers of Andrew Jackson Digital Edition, Daniel Feller, editor. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, Rotunda, 2015–.

Canonic URL: http://rotunda.upress.virginia.edu/founders/JKSN-01-07-02-0383

Original source: Main Series, Volume 7, 1829

 

 

Ripley resigned his commission on the first of February, 1820

July 1818

 

General Zach Taylor

 

Now enters another favorite of Bay St. Louis tradition, that being that Lt. Colonel and future president Zach Taylor, old Rough and Ready himself. It has long been held that he had a presence in Bay St. Louis, but authentication was difficult to find.  Accepted history reports that in 1820 Taylor and his 8th Regiment built a road from Pearl River to the western shore of the Bay of St. Louis.

 

It seems that the road was actually the spur of the Jackson Military Road conceived by his superior, General Ripley. The information at hand does not show any communication between Ripley and

 

It is recorded that “he found his troops ill fed and poorly supplied upon his arrival but organized the slender resources at his disposal to complete the project.” One wonders whether this related to an earlier report, in 1815, by Thomas Shields, in which he remarked about a food shortage at Bay St. Louis. The village of Bay St. Louis, it should be considered, was not yet fully formed as a city.

 

General Taylor was posted to Bay St. Louis from 1820 through 1821,  

 

Thomas Shields

 

The historic society’s web site has a partial biography of Thomas Shields, after whom the current city of Bay St. Louis was once named. It is well known that he was a purser for the United States Navy, and that he served in the War of 1812.

 

Most of the new information about Shields comes from the “Serial Set,” mentioned above, as a by-product of researching facts about General Ripley.  We know from our earliest Tax Rolls that beginning in 1818 Shields paid taxes on a valuation of $10,000.  Property consisted of 800 acres and one slave, and possibly some town lots. If the latter is correct, it would show that the village was beginning to take form.

 

Based on the entry above relative to Ripley’s rental of residence and office, it is evident that Shields was more than a property owner: He was also a landlord. In another source, he rented yokes of oxen to the United States government. Also, a schooner was named for him, and was eventually owned by the federal government, but may have been his from the beginning. Perhaps in those early days he was already an entrepreneur.

 

(Excerpts with pages and numbers listed below are taken from United States Congressional Serial Set)

 

p. 36:

ALEXANDER WILLIAMS, For THOMAS SHIELDS, Esq. The acting deputy quartermaster general, Captain Thomas F. Hunt, will pay the above account. Received, New Orleans, this day of , of Captain Thomas F. Hunt, the sum of two hundred and ten dollars, in full of the above account. ALEXANDER WILLIAMS, For THOMAS SHIELDS, Esq.

 

Another new source furnishes some details about the activity of Shields during the war. It is written that “he had taken a fleet of small boats to annoy British movements on Lake Borgne.”

 

The following is from Naval War of 1812:

After battle of New Orleans, British began departure on 18th to go to ships. Shields, a former sea officer, decided to harass them. ON the 20th, he left with 53 men and encountered a large barge of the Light Dragoons with 40 officers and men. Shields and others were captured and put off on shore. Later, able to secure another vessel and with 8 men boarded a schooner with ten men. Then Shields rejoined flotilla which then captured five barges and 70 men. Shields came back with 178 prisoners. Only three of his men were wounded. They had destroyed eight vessels of British, approximating in tonnage the five schooners which had been lost in Lake Borgne.

 

From another source, it was recorded that on January 20th, 1815, Shields took fifty four prisoners, among whom were four officers. In Synoptical index to the laws and treaties of the United States of America is found the following:

March 3, 1821. Thomas Shields and others paid $3850 for British prisoners. It is listed under “prize money.” Shields was reported to be on Dauphin Island.

 

Long after the War of 1812, the heroics of Thomas Shields were still remembered by Jackson in a letter from the Hermitage in 1826.

 

Elihu Carver

P. 33

Charged for a plan of the town of Mobile $500. Charged as a payment to V. Nicholas for land at the Bay of St. Louis 600.  Charged the amount of Elihu Carver's ac count, for services as acting engineer, from January 1 to May 31, 1819, 500. 

 

Received of El. W. Ripley five hundred dollars, in full for my account against the United States, as acting adjutant topographical engineer on the military road, and I hereby assign to said Ripley all my right, title, and interest against the government of the United.

Eliher [Elihu] Carver

 

Valery Nicholas

 

This name appears in a number of places relative to both Louisiana and Mississippi history. It also appears as Nicolas Valery, indicating a male person.  In France, Valery can indicate either male or feminine gender. In that it was unusual for a woman to be active in matters described below, it probably was assumed at times that Valery Nicholas was a man.

 

In the 1819 Tax Roll for Hancock County, Valery Nicholas is shown as a zero under WP (white person), meaning either over age 50 or non-resident. She claimed 40,000 acres, shown as a Spanish title, and was taxed at $216. She owned no slaves. In 1822, she paid tax on 80,000 acres, valued at $160,000; the tax was $640, and the property was said to be at “Boderie Point.” In that year, it is indicated that her payment was to cover tax for 1820 and 1821 as well.

 

It is probable that “Boderie” was a mistake for Boisdore, who at one time claimed all the land from the bay to the Pearl. Nicholas had asserted ownership of the Boisdore claim, later reduced by the Supreme Court to 640 acres in size. In addition, one document seems to connect her to General Ripley, “as agent of the United States,” in an effort to procure part of the Boisdore property by a width of twenty acres and a depth of seventy-five acres.   

 

She apparently was a Boisdore before marriage, Probate records in New Orleans Public Library listing her as Valery Marguerite Boisdore, wife of Nicolas.

 

Significantly, Valerie Nicholas is also mentioned in the deed by which Lewis Daniells purchased Clifton Plantation, as an agent – substituting for Noel Jourdan – of the heirs of Don Louis Boisdore, “late of New Orleans.”

 

In a biography named Jacques Phillipe Villere, there is appended a list of members of the  

Consolidated Association of Louisiana Planters, as of July 21, 1827. Included is Valery, Nicholas, Orleans Parish, net worth $20,000.

                                

On page 20 of the Serial Set, we also find the following:

 Charged for a plan of the town of Mobile $500. Charged as a payment to V. Nicholas for land at the bay of St. Louis 600.  Charged the amount of Elihu Carver's account, for services as acting engineer, from January 1 to May 31, 1819 500

 

Nicholas died in about 1827-28, without a will. Her assets were inventoried in 1828.

 

 

SCHOONER THOMAS SHIELDS

Whether Thomas Shields was the owner of the schooner Thomas Shields is not clear. At one point, it seems to be a possession of the United States government. It does appear prominently in the Serial Set, and is worthy of mention in these extracts from the Serial Set:

       p. 40:

Bay of St. Louis, September 20, 1818. New Orleans, November 5, 1818. U. S. schooner Thomas Shields bought of Montgomery & Stringer. 2 gallons of brandy and jug $8 \ dozen fowls o 0O 1 pound of imperial tea 3 00 6 pounds of sugar J 6 pounds of coffee * *° 6 bunches of onions 2 00 \ pound of pepper J J; 2 bottles of mustard 75 2 bottles of pickles 2 1 bottle of oil 1 25 ^ gallon of vinegar and jug J JJJ 1 loaf sugar, 7 pounds and 14 ounces, at 3 s 2 94 1 box of tallow candles, 30J pounds, at 2 s 7 62 38 43 Received the above amount in full, for Montgomery & Stringer. DANIEL YARD.

 

p. 20:

The first item is suspended until evidence is produced that Alexander Williams was authorized to receipt for Thomas Shields, when the charge will be admitted. The second charge is not admissible, because there is no evidence that General Ripley has paid the amount, and the same difficulty as to authority to Alexander Williams to receive for Thomas Shields Alexander Williams, for money lost $500 00 2. B. Aiken, two bills for articles supplied…. 1°1 «« o. Supplies for the schooner Tho. Shields 6b 7U 4. F. Favre, for piloting

 

p. 22:

nor any document to show that General Ripley has paid the amount, or is entitled to a credit for it, the want of which, and of the bills paid by the claimant Aiken, Tender the account inadmissible. The second account is for hospital stores furnished Lieutenant Stone, while sick at the Bay of St. Louis ; this account (which is neither receipted nor certified) refers itself to the office of the Second Auditor, and is not admissible in this office. No. 3. Bills for the supply of articles for the transport Thomas Shields. These bills are accompanied by no- evidence from the officer of the transport that they were required or received. The receipts on the bills in some cases are to Captain Moore, the others not named, none to General Ripley ; nor does it appear that any part was paid by him, or any authority to entitle him to a

 

p. 34:

Received of Major General Ripley two hundred dollars, in full of the above account. ALEXANDER WILLIAMS, For THOMAS SHIELDS. Bay of St. Louis, February 20, 1819. Received, Mobile, November 13, of Captain Morton, sixteen dollars and fifty cents, in full for stores furnished the United States schooner Thomas Shields on the 6th October, 1818. $16 50. T. McCUSKER & Co., Per JS. PURSE. United States schooner Thomas Shields to T. McCusker & Co. , Dr. November 14, 1818 — To 1 gallon Jamaica rum $2 50 "

 

       p. 22:

…receipted, nor any document to show that General Ripley has paid the amount, or is entitled to a credit for it, the want of which, and of the bills paid by the claimant Aiken, Tender the account inadmissible. The second account is for hospital stores furnished Lieutenant Stone, while sick at the Bay of St. Louis ; this account (which is neither receipted nor certified) refers itself to the office of the Second Auditor, and is not admissible in this office. No. 3. Bills for the supply of articles for the transport Thomas Shields. These bills are accompanied by no- evidence from the officer of the transport that they were required or received. The receipts on the bills in some cases are to Captain Moore, the others not named, none to General Ripley; nor does it appear that any part was paid by him, or any authority to entitle him to a credit for the amount, and is, therefore….

 

 p. 34:

 Bay of St. Louis, February 20, 1819. Received, Mobile, November 13, of Captain Morton, sixteen dollars and fifty cents, in full for stores furnished the United States schooner Thomas Shields on the 6th October, 1818. $16 50. T. McCUSKER & Co., Per JS. PURSE.

 

 p. 37:

Bay of St. Louis, February 20, 1819. Received of Major General Ripley one      hundred and fifty dollars, in full of the above account. „„,-.,.,,„ ALEX. WILLIAMS, For THOMAS SHIELDS.

 

GENERAL NIXON

Not surprisingly, General George Nixon, also of War of 1812 fame and resident of Pearlington, makes an appearance in the Serial Set.

On February 3, 1816, a request was made of General George Henry Nixon to give aid to Thomas Shields in his reconnaissance of the Bay of St. Louis.

 

APPENDIX

 

Additional Information on Gen. Ripley is found below. Entries with page numbers are taken from the Serial Set.

       p. 33

List of vouchers and documents delivered Doctor McMahon, agreeably to a request contained in the letter of General E. W. Ripley, viz :

 From account B. No. 1. Thomas Shields' account for house rent $200 00 2. Thomas Shields' account for house rent 210 00 From account C. No. Ho. 5. Silas Dinsmore's receipt to General Ripley for a map of the town of Mobile, accompanied by a letter to the general from the War Department, dated 30th November, 1818, on which is indorsed remarks by the Secretary of War, J. H. Eaton, 2d October, 1829, in relation to General Ripley's claim for $500 00 6.

An agreement, signed by Valoy [Valery} Nicholas, to procure a conveyance of the land on which General Ripley claims $600, having thereon the remarks of the Secretary of War, J. H. Eaton, 2d October, 1829 600 00 Elisha [Elihu] Carver's account for his services as engineer, on which is indorsed remarks by Secretary J. H. Eaton, 2d October, 1829 500 80. [Must be clarified.}

 

[The above is notable for several reasons. One is the mention of Silas Dinsmore, Indian agent to the Choctaws, who once had Simon Favre falsely arrested. Another is Elihu Carver, early surveyor of many properties in Hancock County. Thirdly, Carver’s work was accepted well by Secretary of War Eaton, who served under Jackson.  In addition the mysterious but seemingly omnipresent Valery Nicholas is present.]

 

       P. 41:

The acting deputy quartermaster general, Lieutenant J. Yancey, 8th infantry, will please pay the above account. Received, Ripley barracks, Bay of St. Louis, this 8th day of September, 1819, of Lieutenant J. Yancey, 8th infantry, the above account in full, amounting to twenty dollars. I hereby certify that in the month of July last I received from Cap tain Thomas Hunt, assistant deputy quartermaster general at New Orleans, $500, public moneys, to be carried to Major General E. W. Ripley, at the Bay of St. Louis. For this amount I gave my receipt to said Hunt. I embarked on board of Mr. Dragon's schooner, and the money was placed in my portable desk. During the tremendous [illeg] of the night of the 28th of July the said schooner was wrecked, I being on board, and everything lost, among other things my port able desk, and the money in it, and three men on board perished. I was so fortunate as to escape with what clothing I had on. And I fur ther certify that, in consequence of the accident aforesaid, no part of said

money was ever received or paid over by me to said Ripley. ALEXANDER WILLIAMS.

 

       p. 37

Major General Ripley to Thomas Shields, Dr. To the rent of house now occupied as your office, for five months, from November 1, 1818, to March 31, 1819, at $30 per month $150 Bay of St. Louis, February 20, 1819. Received of Major General Ripley one hundred and fifty dollars, in full of the above account. „„,-.,.,,„

FEB 1819

Charged to General Ripley by direction of Secretary of War 1,345 25 Paid also by Lieutenant Yancey in like manner to Camil- lus Griffith for provisions in February, 1819, in like manner charged to General Ripley 32 68 Amount of 5 barrels of flour and 1 of pork, 5 bushels of beans, 64 gallons of whiskey, and 48 pounds of fresh beef, received by General Kipley from Lieutenant E. Webb, assistant commissary at the bay of St. Louis, not accounted for, November 10, 1819 97 02 This sum also charged to his personal account, being the difference between the pay and subsistence of a brigadier general and the amount paid to him as major general by brevet by Paymaster Eakin for the month of May, 1815, until General Ripley furnishes evidence that he was entitled to the pay and subsistence agreeably

 

p. 41:

The acting deputy quartermaster general, Lieutenant J. Yancey, 8th infantry, will please pay the above account. Received, Ripley barracks, Bay of St. Louis, this 8th day of September, 1819, of Lieutenant J. Yancey, 8th infantry, the above account in full, amounting to twenty dollars. I hereby certify that in the month of July last I received from Cap tain Thomas Hunt, assistant deputy quartermaster general at New Orleans, $500, public moneys, to be carried to Major General E. W. Ripley, at the Bay of St. Louis. For this amount I gave my receipt to said Hunt. I embarked on board of Mr. Dragon's schooner, and the money was placed in my portable desk. During the tremendous pie of the night of the 28th of July the said schooner was wrecked, I being on board, and everything lost, among other things my port able desk, and the money in it, and three men on board perished. I was so fortunate as to escape with what clothing I had on. And I fur ther certify that, in consequence of the accident aforesaid, no part of said money was ever received or paid over by me to said Ripley. ALEXANDER WILLIAMS

 

p. 34

Major General Ripley to Thomas Shields, Dr. To the rent of house occupied by yourself and family, for five months, from November 1, 1818, to March 31, 1819, at $40 per month $200 00 Received of Major General Ripley two hundred dollars, in full of the above account. ALEXANDER WILLIAMS, For THOMAS SHIELDS.

 

 

p. 34:

Bay of St. Louis, February 20, 1819. Received, Mobile, November 13, of Captain Morton, sixteen dollars and fifty cents, in full for stores furnished the United States schooner Thomas Shields on the 6th October, 1818. $16.50. T. McCUSKER & Co., Per JS. PURSE. United States schooner Thomas Shields to T. McCusker & Co. , Dr. November 14, 1818 — To 1 gallon Jamaica rum $2 50 "

 

p. 36

30th of June, 1819, at $20 per month 60 00 210 00 I certify, on honor, that the above account is accurate and just, and that I have furnished the quarters as charged.